There is one ON/OFF switch on the controller. It is the power switch which can control the on/off of the controller.
The power switch is on, the controller is powered on. The power switch off, the motor will be brake.
There is a ON/OFF/ON switch on the thumb throttle, it can control the direction of the motor.
When you press the thumb throttle, the motor will accelerate.
There is a voltmeter on the throttle. It will display the voltage of the input power.
Hook the yellow wire to the power+ to display the input voltage.
Package include: 1 X Reversible DC Motor Speed Controller
Please check pictures for more details.
What is the PWM?
Pulse-width modulation (PWM) is a modulation technique used to encode a message into a pulsing signal. Although this modulation technique can be used to encode information for transmission, its main use is to allow the control of the power supplied to electrical devices, especially to inertial loads such as motors.
The average value of voltage (and current) fed to the load is controlled by turning the switch between supply and load on and off at a fast rate. The longer the switch is on compared to the off periods, the higher the total power supplied to the load.
The PWM switching frequency has to be much higher than what would affect the load (the device that uses the power), which is to say that the resultant waveform perceived by the load must be as smooth as possible. Typically switching has to be done several times a minute in an electric stove, 120 Hz in a lamp dimmer, from few kilohertz (kHz) to tens of kHz for a motor drive and well into the tens or hundreds of kHz in audio amplifiers and computer power supplies.
The term duty cycle describes the proportion of 'on' time to the regular interval or 'period' of time; a low duty cycle corresponds to low power, because the power is off for most of the time. Duty cycle is expressed in percent, 100% being fully on.
The main advantage of PWM is that power loss in the switching devices is very low. When a switch is off there being practically no current, and when it is on and power is being transferred to the load, there is almost no voltage drop across the switch. Power loss, being the product of voltage and current, is thus in both cases close to zero. PWM also works well with digital controls, which, because of their on/off nature, can easily set the needed duty cycle.